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Title: Give the main title. Use titles that stimulate interest, are easy to read and concise (12 words or fewer), and contain enough information to convey the essence of the article. Also provide a short or “running” title of 7 or fewer words.
Authors: List authors in the order in which they are to appear in the byline of the published article. In the case of group authorship, identify one or more authors who will have responsibility for the publication. Give the institutional affiliation for each author, financial support information, contact information for the corresponding author, and contact information for the author to receive reprint requests.
Word Count: List the word count for the text of the manuscript. Don’t include the abstract or the references in word counts.
Abstracts should accompany all submissions except Editorials, Letters Comment. Use unstructured formats and limits of 275 or fewer words for abstracts of Narrative Reviews, and Conferences. Use structured abstracts of 275 or fewer words for Original Research, and Systematic Reviews, including Meta-analyses.Organize structured abstracts for these articles, as shown below.
Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusion. If the study is a randomized, controlled trial, list where the trial is registered and the trial’s unique registration number at the end of the abstract.
Systematic Reviews, including Meta-analyses
Background, Purpose, Data Sources, Study Selection, Data Extraction, Data Synthesis, Limitations, Conclusions.
For original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, use four main headings when arranging text: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Aim for clear, concise, logically organized presentations. Use active voice whenever possible. Specific guidance on content follows.
Introduction: Use short introductions that concisely set up the context of the research for readers. Always end the introduction with a clear statement of the study’s objectives or hypotheses.
Methods: For studies involving humans, describe in the Methods section how participants were assembled and selected, and the sites or setting from which they were recruited. Then describe study procedures including any interventions, measurements and data collection techniques. Use figures to diagram study processes including the flow of participants through the study. Provide the number of patients at each stage of recruitment and follow-up, including the number who declined to participate and the number who completed follow-up. State, if true, that an institutional review board approved the study or affirm that the protocol is consistent with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association), and state whether participants gave their informed consent. For studies that have numerical data and use statistical inference, include a section under Methods that describes the methods used for the statistical analysis and that states the specific statistical software. For all studies, include a statement at the end of the Methods section describing the role of the funding source for the study. If the study had no external funding source or if the funding source had no role in the study, state so explicitly.
Results: Fully describe the study sample so that readers can gauge how well the study findings apply to their patients (external validity). Then present primary findings followed by any secondary and subgroup findings. Use tables and figures to demonstrate main characteristics of participants and major findings. Avoid redundancy between text and tables and figures.
Discussion: Consider structuring the discussion according to the following sequence.
1. Provide a brief synopsis of key findings, with particular emphasis on how the findings add to the body of pertinent knowledge.
2. Discuss possible mechanisms and explanations for the findings.
3. Compare study results with relevant findings from other published work. State literature search sources (e.g., MEDLINE) and methods (e.g., English-language search from January 2005 to December 2010 using the following search terms...) that identified previous pertinent work. Use tables and figures to help summarize previous work when possible.
4. Discuss the limitations of the present study and any methods used to minimize or compensate for those limitations.
5. Mention any crucial future research directions.
6. Conclude with a brief section that summarizes in a straightforward and circumspect manner the clinical implications of the work.
Acknowledge only persons who have contributed to the scientific content or provided technical support. Authors should obtain written permission from anyone they wish to list in the Acknowledgments section. The corresponding author must also affirm that he or she has listed everyone who contributed significantly to the work in the Acknowledgments.
Number references, using Arabic numerals in parentheses, in the order in which they first appear in the text.
References cited in a table/figure should appear in numeric order relative to the first citation of the table/figure in the text. For example, if the last reference cited before the table/figure in question is mentioned as reference 14, and that table/figure contains 5 references that have not been cited, the references in the table/figure would be numbered 15 through 19. Reference citations in the text would then recommence with number 20.
• Appendix material should not have separate reference sections. References that appear in both the text and the appendix should be numbered as they appear in the text. Any references that appear only in the appendix should be added consecutively to the end of the text reference list.
• Use the reference style of the National Library of Medicine, including the abbreviations of journal titles.
• List all authors when there are 6 or fewer; when there are 7 or more authors, list only the first 6 and add “et al.”
• Do not use ibid. or op cit.
• Include an “available from” note for documents that may not be readily accessible.
• Cite symposium papers only from published proceedings.
• When citing an article or book accepted for publication but not yet published, include the title of the journal (or name of the publisher) and the year of expected publication.
• Include references to unpublished material in the text, not in the references (for example, papers presented orally at a meeting; unpublished work [personal communications, papers in preparation]), and submit a letter of permission from the cited persons to cite such communications (in general, avoid citations to unpublished scientific results).
• Ensure that URLs used as references are active and available (the references should include the date on which the author accessed the URL) (see also Badgett ‘In Reply’).
• Click here for sample references that conform to the style specified by the Uniform Requirements agreement.
Use footnotes only on the title page and in tables. Do not use footnotes in the text. Footnote symbols, in the order in which they should be used, are *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡, and so on. Do not use numbers or letters.
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Type each table on a separate page at the end of the main document. Do not submit tables as photographs. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table. Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean. Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules. Be sure that each table is cited in the text. If you use data from another published source, obtain permission and acknowledge fully.
For electronic submitting please follow the instructions reported at http://author.shortnessofbreath.it/
Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. If a figure has been published, acknowledge the original source. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material will have to be supplied. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain. If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.
Figures should be professionally drawn, photographed and digitised or created electronically; freehand or typewritten lettering is unacceptable. Letters, numbers and symbols should be clear and even throughout and of sufficient size that when reduced for publication, each item will still be legible. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves.
All illustrations must be supplied at the correct resolution:
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|Section||Description||Word Limit||Abstract Type*||Miscellaneous Considerations|
|Original Research||Reports of original research on prevalence, causes, mechanisms, diagnosis, course, treatment, and prevention of disease.||4000||Structured 200 or fewer words||Follow standard reporting guidelines - see links under specific article types. 3-5 keywords75 or fewer bibliographic references; no more than 4-6 tables or figures can typically be included in the main body of a published article.|
|Conferences||Summaries of selected conference proceedings (e.g. NIH State of the Science conferences)||4000||Unstructured, 200 or fewer words||Invited by editors, potential authors should contact the editors before submitting|
|Editorials||Commentary on current topics or on papers published elsewhere in the issue.||1500||None||20 or fewer bibliographic references; no tables or figures; most are solicited by the Editors.|
|Letters: Clinical Observations||Short research or case reports.||1500||Structured, 200 or fewer words||3-5 keywords Maximum of 5 authors and 5 references.|
|Letters: Comments||Comments on papers published in JPM||400||None||Maximum of 3 authors and 5 references.|
|Reviews: Narrative||Descriptions of cutting-edge and evolving developments, and underlying theory.||3500 to 4000||Unstructured 200 or fewer words||3-5 keywords|
|Reviews: Systematic & Meta-Analyses||Reviews that systematically find, select, critique, and synthesize evidence relevant to well-defined questions about diagnosis, prognosis, or therapy.||3500 to 4000||Structured 200 or fewer words||Include a flow diagram that depicts search and selection processes, and evidence tables. 3-5 keywords|